Rafflesia manillana Teschemacher
Species named after the city of Manilla, Philippines.
Description translated from the original German text (Koorders 1918) by Vanessa Ashworth. Perigone lobes with rounded warts (as far as is possible to determine in the bud). Perigone tube so densely covered with mushroom-shaped stalked ramenta that the parasol edges of the individual ramenta almost touch each other. On the interior surface of the diaphragm are three horizontal rows of flat warts with a short, flat stalk, representing shortened and widened mushroom-type ramenta. The annulus internus [internal ring] is massively developed forming the upwardly reflexed column base, opening diagonally upward, sharpened. Annulus externus [outer ring] practically not present, developed as a glabrous annular zone of almost imperceptible swelling. Discus staminatus [staminate disc] flat with a raised but narrow edge and with short-stalked processes having button-like endings with terminal bristles. Slope of the disc facing inward, anthers pendent [hanging down] separated by sharp, blade-like rounded laminae covered by fleshy bristles along their margins. At their other end these rounded laminae turn into flat extensions that separate the anther cavities. These are flat above, becoming increasingly incised toward the base, well demarcated, coming close to the annulus. Extension between them [the anther cavities] widening externally into triangles and covered with dark bumps. Secondary extensions present both in the cavities and the ridges; the latter extending as far as the annulus in diverging directions. Female flower not known with certainty (Solms).
Description from Flora Malesiana treatment (W. Meijer, 1997) Flower buds up to 8 cm across, cupule 2.5-3 cm high, 4-6 cm wide, bud scales up to 5.5-7 cm long. Flowers 15-20 cm wide and 7-9 cm high when expanded. Perigone lobes light reddish brown, 4-6 cm long and 5-7 cm wide, white warts a mixture of larger circular with oval ones, about 10-12 along a transverse line halfway up the lobes, mixed with numerous white dots. Diaphragm ca. 1-1.4 cm broad, ca. 7 cm in diameter, strongly curved inwards along the opening, which is about 5/6th as wide as the apex of the perigone tube; upper face rather densely randomly covered with oblongish white warts. Disk of column ca. 2 cm above the base of the perianth tube, 3.2-4.5 cm in diameter including the rim, exposed whle the flower is opened; rim of disk with a 3-5 mm high raised part. Processes about 14-20 (-30), sometimes almost missing in the centre of the disk, 3.5-5.5 mm long, apex cylindric, with bushy cilia. Neck of column 1.3 -1.8 cm in diameter, narrower in male flowers. One prominent annulus, 3 mm broad, 30-38 mm in diameter around the base of the column. Perigone tube ca. 2.5 cm deep, 5 cm wide; ramenta at the inner side in about 12 rows, little stalked outgrowths, 0.5-1 mm high, multilobed at apex, virtually absent near the base of the perianth tube, close to the annulus; in a 1 cm wide zone below the diaphragm with short, warty lobed, whitish, 2-3 mm wide warts. Male flowers with 10-15 anthers, relatively large for such small flowers, not hidden in a sulcus as in the larger-flowered species, but attached rather close to the lower margin of the disk; corresponding with each anther in the central column a deep groove which runds down below the anther to the column base. Female flowers with ovary 2.5 cm wide at apex, 1.0 cm high, about the annulus without grooves or with very faint ones, less room under the corona (overhang) of the disk than in male flowers, on it slower side a pappillose stigmatic zone.
Rafflesia manillana, fully open flower. This species has the smallest flower among all known species of Rafflesia (15-20 cm diameter). Mount Makiling in Los Banos, the Philippines. Photo May 2003 by Julie Barcelona.
Rafflesia manillana, open flower with bud. Mount Makiling in Los Banos, the Philippines. Photo May 2003 by Julie Barcelona.
Julie Barcelona and Danny Balete with a Rafflesia manillana flower. Mount Makiling in Los Banos, the Philippines. Photo May 2003 by Arvin Diesmos.
Julie Barcelona with the tiny (relatively speaking!) Rafflesia manillana flower. Mount Makiling in Los Banos, the Philippines. Photo May 2003 by Arvin Diesmos.
Rafflesia manillana flower and bud. Mt. Natib, Philippines. Photo by Julie Barcelona.
Julie Barcelona studying a Rafflesia manillana flower. Mt. Natib, Philippines.
Senescent Rafflesia manillana flowers. Or are some of these forming fruits? Mt. Natib, Philippines.
Open flower showing column inside the diaphragm and the densely spotted perigone tube. Mt. Labo, photo by Julie Barcelona.
Close-up of diaphragm opening with pollinating flies. Mt. Labo, photo by Julie Barcelona.
SIUC / College of Science / Parasitic Plant Connection / Rafflesiaceae
Last updated: 11-May-07 / dln